☛ What is our fundamental nature?
Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding the neural, hormonal, and genetic mechanisms underlying the social structures and processes that define social species generally and our species in particular. Our current social neuroscience research is focused on understanding the social brain (i.e., the neural and hormonal mechanisms), social genomics (i.e., the genetic and molecular mechanisms), and social resilience (i.e., social structures and processes). The brain is the central organ of these social structures and processes, so we focus not only on the objective social environment but also on the brain’s reaction to the social environment.
Evolutionary Mechanisms for Loneliness. John T. Cacioppo, Stephanie Cacioppo & Dorret I. Boomsma (2014). Cognition & Emotion, 28, 3-21.
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☛ How do people distinguish between hostile and hospitable stimuli and events?
The most basic information processing operation performed by the central nervous system is the differentiation of hostile from hospitable stimuli. The three-neuron reflex arc at the level of the spinal cord is sufficient to perform this operation—for instance, reflexively withdrawing from painful stimuli. This basic information processing operation is performed at multiple levels of the central nervous system, often with synergistic effects, but occasionally with antagonistic effects—as when a person inhibits withdrawing from a painful but life-saving vaccine from a trusted physician or negotiates a peace treaty with an enemy combatant. At the lowest level of the central nervous system, this operation is fixed and is called a reflex. At the highest level, this operation is malleable and includes preferences, beliefs, opinions, and attitudes.
The Evaluative Space Model. John T. Cacioppo, Gary G. Berntson, Catherine J. Norris, Jackie K. Gollan (2012). Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology, Volume 1 (pp. 50-72). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press.
☛ How do we know what we know?
How can we infer the psychological significance from physiological signals? More generally, how can we infer the conceptual significance of empirical data? These basic questions are special cases of the bigger question of how we know what we (think we) know?
Brain Imaging and Cognitive Neuroscience: Toward Strong Inference in Attributing Function to Structure (PDF)
M. Sarter, G.G. Berntson, and J.T. Cacioppo (1996). American Psychologist, 51(1):13-21.
☛ How does stress damage our bodies?
A stressor refers to a stimulus and event to which a person is subjected, whereas stress refers to the person’s appraisal of that stimulus or event. The person’s brain is the central organ for this appraisal, and the nature of this appraisal can influence, and be influenced by, a person’s body and biology. What is the nature of these reciprocal influences between the brain and the periphery, and how does stress damage our bodies?
Ascending Visceral Regulation of Cortical Affective Information Processing (PDF). Gary G. Berntson, Martin Sarter, and John T. Cacioppo (2003). European Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 2103-2109.
☛ What is an emotion?
In 1884, William James asked rhetorically, “What is an emotion?” and posited that emotions were the perception of distinct patterns of somatovisceral activity. This question and William James’ answer have been active targets of research since that time. This question is so intriguing because of the larger question upon which it also bears: How much of a person’s conscious experience can be trusted to reflect anything valid about the actual nature or basis of that experience?
What Is an Emotion? The Role of Somatovisceral Afference, with Special Emphasis on Somatovisceral "Illusions" (PDF). John T. Cacioppo, Gary G. Berntson, and David J. Klein (1992). Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 63-98.